Exact connotation of modern state arose in modern Europe-IT MEANS A POLITICALLY ORGANISED SOCIAL GROUP HAVING LEGITIMACY OVER VIOLENCE.
Pre-modern State in India
Clearly Indian society is marked by sufficient differentiation of political authority which existed in Indian civilizational history prior to European invasion
Doctrine of karma provided specific political fortunes of india atties
Caste also established a system of differentiation status and political authority
But in india under caste system state was not site of universality and sovereignty by becoming symbol of society as a whole,In the self maintaining moral order state was subordinated
Main function of state was to polic possible infringements of caste social order
The political architecture of premodern india exist b/w different levels-
Village-where people spent most of their lives
Subregion-dominated by local landowners
Regional Kingdoms-operated through dynasties but shortlived
Great Empires-rose and fell with strange regularity,There were trade activities prior to advent of British India
What is called political in our time is distributed across levels and layers of social formation in a very unfamiliar manner
State in Colonial modernity
The colonial state remained a thin stratum of institutions; its circle of activity remained narrow, confined to the maintenance of colonial order and extractive economic functions.
It created a limited public sphere
The Modern nation State
Extreme political instability after independence put a coercive apparatus to Indian state-Pakistan problem,unification,communist insurgency,
There were a close connection b/w policies of economic development and the structures of state apparatus-The modern Indian state inherited two distinct legacies-
1.a colonial state system of internal control,administrative ethos,laws and rules,persistent repressiveness against lower strata of society.
2.a successor to triumphant national movement
After independence the functioning of modern Indian state changed its mode of functioning
During Nehru period,functioning of institutional structure were drawn from western educated elite who did not face any democratic pressure at times
State but left the agricultural scenario intact
But heavy industrialization got primacy
Rapid industrialization rejuvenated rapid growth of a middle class in India-Managers,engineers,businessmen, etcS
The constitutional rhetoric of Indian state placed three distinct emphasis-sovereignty,democracy,and socialism
Despite idea of democracy came from West,the democratic politics in India was bound to make political world of India less western and more indigenous
But the tangible institutions of Indian state seemed relatively helpless against intangible forces of cultural understanding of ordinary people
But there were distinct lines of decline of modern Indian State.
Democratic state in india was principally a covenant b/w the western educated upper class elite who inherited power of Indian state from British and the common man
But after six decades the pardox of Indian democracy is that the elites who took helm of Indian state seemed less commited but the teeming millions more commited for india state expecting some benefit.