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Sunday, July 10, 2011

Contribution of Armed Forces towards Independent India including Nation Building

Armed Forces –

The military forces of a nation or nations, including the army, navy, air force, marines, etc. All the military, naval, and air forces of a country or group of countries.

It is govt sponsored,fighting force,well organized,they exist to pursue both foreign and domestic policies of govt,defend the govt and its people from external aggression,

The study of the use of armed forces is called military science. Broadly speaking, this involves considering offense and defense at three "levels": strategy, operational art, and tactics. All three levels study the application of the use of force in order to achieve a desired objective.

Armed Forces in India

The Armed Forces epitomize the ideals of service, sacrifice, patriotism and our country's composite culture. The recruitment to the Armed Forces is voluntary and every citizen of India, irrespective of his caste, class, religion and community is eligible for recruitment into the Armed Forces, provided he meets the physical, medical and educational criteria laid down for this purpose.

The Government of India is responsible for ensuring the defence of India and every part thereof. The Supreme Command of the Indian Armed Forces vests in the President. The responsibility for national defence rests with the Cabinet. This is discharged through the Ministry of Defence, which provides the policy framework and wherewithal to the Armed Forces to discharge their responsibilities in the context of the defence of the country. The Indian Armed Forces comprise of three divisions – Indian Army, Indian Navy, and the Indian Air

Indian Army

The Indian subcontinent had witnessed the cohesive concentration of many Empires in the quest for control of military power, and governance of the State. As time rolled by, societal norms found an ethos in the workplace, the system of rights and privileges, and service under the flag.

The Indian Army, as we know it today became operational after the Country gained independence from British colonialism. The Indian Army's HQ is located in New Delhi and functions under the Chief of Army Staff (COAS), who is responsible for the command, control, and administration as a whole. The Army is divided into six operational commands (field armies) and one training command, each under the command of a Lieutenant General, who has an equal status to the Vice-Chief of Army Staff (VCOAS), working under the control of Army HQ in New Delhi.

Indian Navy

The foundation of the modern Indian Navy was laid in the seventeenth century when the East India Company had established a maritime force, thereby graduating in time to the establishment of the Royal Indian Navy in 1934. The Headquarters of the Indian Navy is located in New Delhi, and is under the command of the Chief of the naval staff – an Admiral. The Indian navy is deployed under three area commands, each headed by a flag officer. The Western Naval Command is headquartered in Bombay on the Arabian Sea; the Southern Naval Command in Kochi (Cochin), in Kerala, also on the Arabian Sea; and the Eastern Naval Command in Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, on the Bay of Bengal.

Indian Air Force

The Indian Air Force was officially established on 8th October 1932, and on 1st April 1954, Air Marshal Subroto Mukherjee, one of the founding members of the Air Force took over as the first Indian Chief of Air Staff. With the passage of time, the Indian Air Force undertook massive upgrading of its aircraft and equipments, and as part of the process, it introduced more than twenty new types of aircrafts. The last decade of the twentieth century saw a phenomenal change in the structure of the Indian Air Force with induction of women into the Air Force for short service commissions. It was also a time when the Air Force undertook some of the most perilous operations ever undertaken.

Nation Building-

“Nation-building is the intervention in the affairs of a nation state for the purposes of changing the state’s method of government. Nation-building also includes efforts to promote institutions which will provide for economic well being and social equity”

Nation-building refers to the process of constructing or structuring a national identity using the power of the state. This process aims at the unification of the people or peoples within the state so that it remains politically stable and viable in the long run. ...

Role of nation building

The 21st century looks towards



economic development and a

democratic polity as the pillars of nation building.

Security comes first in the pecking order because the other three pillars function effectively only if the security threshold on the nation, both internal and external, remains intact. This in turn facilitates smooth functioning of democracy and brings in its wake social justice and economic development.

In many sense, Indian armed forces have played crucial role in nation building process in India.

Most prominently India is surrounded by a group of military ruling political systems.

In the Indian sub continent, the armies of states littoral to India have, instead of providing the security umbrella to their countries, exploited the system to seize power and have effectively stagnated the flow of the polity towards democracy.

The most visible case is Myanmar. A Noble Laureate and champion of democracy, Aung San Suu Kyi imprisoned since 1990 despite international pressure to open up the polity and release the incarcerated leader.

Nepal’s tryst with destiny witnessed the Nepali Army extending full support to the pro-monarchy forces of King Gyanendra.

In Bangladesh the corrupt regimes of the vitriolic Begums-sheikh Hazina and Khalida Zia, have been effectively quashed and the army has taken over the reins of governance.

Sri Lanka has been embroiled in a long and costly insurgency movement mainly because of the chauvinistic attitude of its Army officered by feudal Sinhalas who do not favour giving equal rights to the Tamils and do not allow the flow of talks towards this plausibly inevitable direction. The island nation has lost out on the wonderful opportunities for development that its natural resources offer due to this debilitating internal strife.

The situation in Pakistan is well documented. Musharraf was rated as the 15th worst dictator in the world and has left no stone unturned to maintain his position. The political drama that is unfolding over the transition of power to civilians as promised will most probably end in a manner that benefits Musharraf and the Pakistani Army. Hence, democracy in Pakistan will continue to be a pipe dream.

Security of India is at risk in many senses because of the internal dynamics of South Asian political scenario. The resultant continued instability from all sides poses a very serious threat to the security of the nation whose mechanisms of governance are severely strained in the face of these challenges.

Especially the Middle Kingdrom Syndrome,The “strategic encirclement” of India,The “big brother pefception” of neighbours.

The 21st century India faces challenges in the form of terrorism, population migration, narco-terrorism and extremists ideology. It also establishes that dictatorial regimes are rejected by the people and they are unable to provide satisfaction with respect to any of the four pillars of nation building.

The primary role of the military is to defend the country against all internal and external threats. It is trained, organized and equipped accordingly.

The Armed Forces have six main tasks:

1. To assert the territorial integrity of India.

2. To defend the country if attacked by a foreign nation.

3. To send own amphibious warfare equipment to take the battle to enemy shores.

4. Cold Start which means Indian Armed Forces being able to quickly mobilise and take offensive actions without crossing the enemy's nuclear-use threshold.

5. To support the civil community in case of disasters (e.g. flooding).

6. Participate in United Nations peacekeeping operations in consonance with India’s commitment to the United Nations Charter.

However, its strength in manpower, discipline and flexible organization, makes it a suitable force for employment in developmental projects.

Many armies in the recent times have tried to share the economic burden of their country by undertaking nation-building projects. Noteworthy among them are the Peoples Liberation Army of China (PLA)and the Malaysian, Iranian and Royal Thai Armies.

The Navy,Airforce and Army protect India from various challenges

Why Navy

The Navy protect our

sea boundaries,one of the largest coastal area in the world,our sea routes,

Indian Ocean-a trade centre,oil trade 2/3,strategically significant,

our fishermen,our marine eco-systems,our inventory of marine resources,

Why Airforce

The Airforce protect

Our skies,our aerial or inflight territories,monitors boundaries,our natural resources,our population ,etc

It gives transit or passages to sky high mountain territories,glacier areas,organizes unmanned missions in unreachable areas,

Why Army

It protects and promotes our security environment in many senses,

Our Himalayan glaciers especially Siachen,Rann of Kutch,K2 ,Himalayan areas,

In many sense our defence forces are related more to our developmental requirements,the armed forces act as a catalyst to our national development goals,

Natural Disasters -In times of natural disaster, such as the great floods , army engineers, medical and logistics personnel, and the armed forces played a major role in bringing relief and supplies. The army also engaged in extensive economic activities.

Participate in United Nations peacekeeping operations in consonance with India’s commitment to the United Nations Charter.as well participate in many joint ventures of India with other defence systems in the world.

Teaching points prepared by Biju P R,Assitant Professor in political Science,GBc,TLLy.OPEN COURSE

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