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I am author of the books Political Internet(Routledge, 2017), Intimate Speakers ( Fingerprint! 2017), has finished the typescript of three books—first, on Internet and sexuality; second, on the negative impacts of social media; and third, a novel—and is presently working on a narrative non-fiction with the working title Lovescape: Why India is afraid of love.

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Saturday, January 25, 2014

Parliamentary Democracy: The road we travelled:Important Articles of the Indian Constitution,-Module-IV-(Lecutres for the SC/ST,Minority Entry-in-Serive Coaching Centre, Kannur University)






Indian constitution is the largest constitution in the world it contains originally 395 Articles, 22 parts, and 8 schedule. And presently it has 448 articles, 22 parts, and 12 schedules.
Ø Part 1- Art. 1 to art. 4:
· Art.1- Name and territory of the union.
· Art.2 - Admission and Establishment of the new state.
· Art.3- Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states.
Ø Part 2- Art. 5 to art. 11:
· Art.5 - Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.
· Art.6- Rights of citizenship of certain person who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
· Art.10- continuance of rights of citizenship.
· Art.11- Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.
Ø Part 3- Art.12 to art.35
· Art.12- Definition of the state
· Art.13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
Originally, constitution provided for 7 basic fundamental rights, now there is only six rights, one Right to property U/A 31 was deleted from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment act 1978. It made a legal right U/A 300-A in Part XII of the constitution.
Some important Fundamental Rights are as:
· Right to Equality: Art. 14 to Art. 18
· Art.14- Equality before the law.
· Art.15- Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth.
· Art.16- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
· Art.17- Abolition of the untouchability.
· Art.18- Abolition of titles

· Right to Freedom: Art. 19 to art. 22
· Art.19 guarantees to all the citizens the six rights
· (a) Right to freedom of speech and expression.
· (b) Right to assemble peacefully and without arms.
· (c) Right to form associations or unions.
· (d) Right to move freely throughout the territory of India.

· (e) Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
· (f) Right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade, and business.
· Art.20- Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
· Art.21-Protection of life and personal liberty.
· Art .22- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
· Right against Exploitation: Art.23 & art. 24
· Art. 23- Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
· Art.24- Prohibition of employment of children in factories and mines. Under age of 14.
Ø Right to Freedom of Religion: Art.25 to art. 28
· Art.25- Freedom of conscience and free profession , practice and propagation of religion.
· Art.26- Freedom to manage religious affairs.
· Art.27- Freedom as to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
· Art.28- Freedom from attending religious instruction.
Ø Cultural and Educational Rights:Art.29 & art. 30
· Art. 29- Protection of interest of minorities.
· Art.30- Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
Ø Art.32- Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.

Ø Part.4 Directive Principal of states Policy: Art 36 to art. 51

· Art.36- Definition
· Art.37- Application of DPSP
· Art.39A- Equal justice and free legal aid
· Art.40- Organisation of village panchayat
· Art.41- Right to work , to education, and to public assistance in certain cases
· Art.43- Living Wages, etc. for Workers.
· Art.43A- Participation of workers in management of industries.
· Art.44- Uniform civil code.( applicable in Goa only)
· Art.45- Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
· Art.46- Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes, ST,and OBC.
· Art.47-Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public heath.
· Art.48-Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
· Art.49- Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance.
· Art.50- Separation of judiciary from executive.
· Art.51- Promotion of international peace and security.
· Fundamental Duties: Part IV-A- Art 51A
· It contains, originally 10 duties, now it contains 11 duties by 86th amendments act 2002.
· Part.5- The Union Executive:
· Art.52- The President of india
· Art.53- Executive Power of the union.
· Art.54- Election of President
· Art.61- Procedure for Impeachment of the President.
· Art.63- The Vice-president of India.
· Art.64- The Vice-President to be ex-officio chairman the council of States.
· Art.66-Election of Vice-president.
· Art.72-Pradoning powers of President.
· Art.74- Council of minister to aid and advice President.
· Art.76- Attorney-General for India.
· Art.79- Constitution of Parliament
· Art.80- Composition of Rajya Sabha.
· Art.81- Composition of Lok Sabha.
· Art.83- Duration of Houses of Parliament.
· Art.93- The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people.
· Art.105- Powers, Privileges,etc of the House of Parliament.
· Art.109- Special procedure in respects of money bills
· Art.110- Definition of “Money Bills”.
· Art.112- Annual Financial Budget.
· Art.114-Appropriation Bills.
· Art.123- Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament.
· Art.124- Establishment of Supreme Court.
· Art.125- Salaries of Judges.
· Art.126- Appointment of acting Chief justice.
· Art.127- Appointment of ad-hoc judges.
· Art.128-Attendence of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court.
· Art.129- Supreme court to be court of Record.
· Art.130- Seat of the Supreme court.
· Art.136- Special leaves for appeal to the Supreme Court.
· Art.137- Review of judgements or orders by the Supreme court.
· Art.141-Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts.
· Art.148- Comptroller and Auditor- General of India
· Art.149- Duties and Powers of CAG.
· Art.153- Governors of State
· Art.154- Executive Powers of Governor.
· Art.161- Pardoning powers of the Governor.
· Art.165-Advocate-General of the State.
· Art.213- Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances.
· Art.214- High Courts for states.
· Art.215- High Courts to be court of record.
· Art.226- Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.
· Art.233- Appoinment of District judges.
· Art.235- Control over Sub-ordinate Courts.
· Art.243A- Gram Sabha
· Art.243B- Constitution of Panchayats
· Art.280- Finance Commission
· Art.300-A- Right to property.
· Art.301-Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse.
· Art.302- Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commersce, and intercourse.
· Art.312- All- India-Service.
· Art.315- Public service commissions for the union and for the states
· Art.320- Functions of Public Service Commission.
· Art.323A- Administrative Tribunals
· Art.324-Superintendence, direction and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission.
· Art.325- No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex.
· Art.326- Elections to the house of the people and to the legislative assemblies of states to be on the basis of adult suffrage.
· Art.338- National Commission for the SC, & ST.
· Art.340- Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes.
· Art.343- Official languages of the Union.
· Art.345- Official languages or languages of a states.
· Art.348- Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts.
· Art.351-Directive for development of the hindi languages.
· Art.352- Proclamation of emergency ( National Emergency).
· Art.356- State Emergency
· Art.360- Financial Emergency
· Art.361- Protection of President and Governors
· Art.368- Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution.
· Art.370-Special provision of J&K.
· Art.393-Constituion of India.

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