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Hi, my name is Biju P R. I am a writer, teacher and academic blogger. Anything that comes through society and technology interest me. My blog posts here define what am I doing here. Please just check it out.

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Saturday, January 25, 2014

Parliamentary Democracy: The road we travelled:Important Articles of the Indian Constitution,-Module-IV-(Lecutres for the SC/ST,Minority Entry-in-Serive Coaching Centre, Kannur University)

Hi, getting visibility among core literary public is benchmark of publishing success and this message is part of an aggressive online campaign for the promotion and visibility of my two books [1] Political Internet and [2] Intimate Speakers among core reading public in online space.
It will be really helpful if you are able to help me forward, share, tweet, post, or tag this message or parts of this message among potential beneficiaries of the ideas in the books in your network, your friend’s network or their networks?

Or anyone should according to you benefit if they work broadly on anything related to social media, Internet, society, politics, cyber sexuality, Internet pornography, intimacies,  women and online misogyny, introverts, underprivileged people, Diaspora, cyberspace, Internet in education, International relations, digital politics, social media and state, public sphere, civil society, social capital, contentious politics and so on.

1. Political Internet: State and Politics in the Age of Social Media, (Routledge 2017)

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2. Intimate Speakers: Why Introverted and Socially Ostracized Citizens Use Social Media, (Fingerprint! 2017).

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Biju P R

Author, Teacher, Blogger

Assistant Professor of Political Science

Government Brennen College


Kerala, India

My Books
1. Political Internet: State and Politics in the Age of Social Media,
(Routledge 2017), Amazon https://www.amazon.in/Political-InternetStatePoliticsSocialebook/dp/B01M5K3SCU?_encoding=UTF8&qid=&ref_=tmm_kin_swatch_0&sr=

2. Intimate Speakers: Why Introverted and Socially Ostracized Citizens Use Social Media, (Fingerprint! 2017)
Amazon: http://www.amazon.in/dp/8175994290/ref=sr_1_2?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1487261127&sr=1-2&keywords=biju+p+r 

Indian constitution is the largest constitution in the world it contains originally 395 Articles, 22 parts, and 8 schedule. And presently it has 448 articles, 22 parts, and 12 schedules.
Ø Part 1- Art. 1 to art. 4:
· Art.1- Name and territory of the union.
· Art.2 - Admission and Establishment of the new state.
· Art.3- Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states.
Ø Part 2- Art. 5 to art. 11:
· Art.5 - Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.
· Art.6- Rights of citizenship of certain person who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
· Art.10- continuance of rights of citizenship.
· Art.11- Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.
Ø Part 3- Art.12 to art.35
· Art.12- Definition of the state
· Art.13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
Originally, constitution provided for 7 basic fundamental rights, now there is only six rights, one Right to property U/A 31 was deleted from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment act 1978. It made a legal right U/A 300-A in Part XII of the constitution.
Some important Fundamental Rights are as:
· Right to Equality: Art. 14 to Art. 18
· Art.14- Equality before the law.
· Art.15- Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth.
· Art.16- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
· Art.17- Abolition of the untouchability.
· Art.18- Abolition of titles

· Right to Freedom: Art. 19 to art. 22
· Art.19 guarantees to all the citizens the six rights
· (a) Right to freedom of speech and expression.
· (b) Right to assemble peacefully and without arms.
· (c) Right to form associations or unions.
· (d) Right to move freely throughout the territory of India.

· (e) Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
· (f) Right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade, and business.
· Art.20- Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
· Art.21-Protection of life and personal liberty.
· Art .22- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
· Right against Exploitation: Art.23 & art. 24
· Art. 23- Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
· Art.24- Prohibition of employment of children in factories and mines. Under age of 14.
Ø Right to Freedom of Religion: Art.25 to art. 28
· Art.25- Freedom of conscience and free profession , practice and propagation of religion.
· Art.26- Freedom to manage religious affairs.
· Art.27- Freedom as to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
· Art.28- Freedom from attending religious instruction.
Ø Cultural and Educational Rights:Art.29 & art. 30
· Art. 29- Protection of interest of minorities.
· Art.30- Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
Ø Art.32- Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.

Ø Part.4 Directive Principal of states Policy: Art 36 to art. 51

· Art.36- Definition
· Art.37- Application of DPSP
· Art.39A- Equal justice and free legal aid
· Art.40- Organisation of village panchayat
· Art.41- Right to work , to education, and to public assistance in certain cases
· Art.43- Living Wages, etc. for Workers.
· Art.43A- Participation of workers in management of industries.
· Art.44- Uniform civil code.( applicable in Goa only)
· Art.45- Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
· Art.46- Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes, ST,and OBC.
· Art.47-Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public heath.
· Art.48-Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
· Art.49- Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance.
· Art.50- Separation of judiciary from executive.
· Art.51- Promotion of international peace and security.
· Fundamental Duties: Part IV-A- Art 51A
· It contains, originally 10 duties, now it contains 11 duties by 86th amendments act 2002.
· Part.5- The Union Executive:
· Art.52- The President of india
· Art.53- Executive Power of the union.
· Art.54- Election of President
· Art.61- Procedure for Impeachment of the President.
· Art.63- The Vice-president of India.
· Art.64- The Vice-President to be ex-officio chairman the council of States.
· Art.66-Election of Vice-president.
· Art.72-Pradoning powers of President.
· Art.74- Council of minister to aid and advice President.
· Art.76- Attorney-General for India.
· Art.79- Constitution of Parliament
· Art.80- Composition of Rajya Sabha.
· Art.81- Composition of Lok Sabha.
· Art.83- Duration of Houses of Parliament.
· Art.93- The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people.
· Art.105- Powers, Privileges,etc of the House of Parliament.
· Art.109- Special procedure in respects of money bills
· Art.110- Definition of “Money Bills”.
· Art.112- Annual Financial Budget.
· Art.114-Appropriation Bills.
· Art.123- Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament.
· Art.124- Establishment of Supreme Court.
· Art.125- Salaries of Judges.
· Art.126- Appointment of acting Chief justice.
· Art.127- Appointment of ad-hoc judges.
· Art.128-Attendence of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court.
· Art.129- Supreme court to be court of Record.
· Art.130- Seat of the Supreme court.
· Art.136- Special leaves for appeal to the Supreme Court.
· Art.137- Review of judgements or orders by the Supreme court.
· Art.141-Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts.
· Art.148- Comptroller and Auditor- General of India
· Art.149- Duties and Powers of CAG.
· Art.153- Governors of State
· Art.154- Executive Powers of Governor.
· Art.161- Pardoning powers of the Governor.
· Art.165-Advocate-General of the State.
· Art.213- Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances.
· Art.214- High Courts for states.
· Art.215- High Courts to be court of record.
· Art.226- Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.
· Art.233- Appoinment of District judges.
· Art.235- Control over Sub-ordinate Courts.
· Art.243A- Gram Sabha
· Art.243B- Constitution of Panchayats
· Art.280- Finance Commission
· Art.300-A- Right to property.
· Art.301-Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse.
· Art.302- Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commersce, and intercourse.
· Art.312- All- India-Service.
· Art.315- Public service commissions for the union and for the states
· Art.320- Functions of Public Service Commission.
· Art.323A- Administrative Tribunals
· Art.324-Superintendence, direction and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission.
· Art.325- No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex.
· Art.326- Elections to the house of the people and to the legislative assemblies of states to be on the basis of adult suffrage.
· Art.338- National Commission for the SC, & ST.
· Art.340- Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes.
· Art.343- Official languages of the Union.
· Art.345- Official languages or languages of a states.
· Art.348- Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts.
· Art.351-Directive for development of the hindi languages.
· Art.352- Proclamation of emergency ( National Emergency).
· Art.356- State Emergency
· Art.360- Financial Emergency
· Art.361- Protection of President and Governors
· Art.368- Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution.
· Art.370-Special provision of J&K.
· Art.393-Constituion of India.

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