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I am author of the books Political Internet(Routledge, 2017), Intimate Speakers ( Fingerprint! 2017), has finished the typescript of three books—first, on Internet and sexuality; second, on the negative impacts of social media; and third, a novel—and is presently working on a narrative non-fiction with the working title Lovescape: Why India is afraid of love.

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Friday, December 17, 2010

cultural and biological basis of society


Hi, getting visibility among core literary public is benchmark of publishing success and this message is part of an aggressive online campaign for the promotion and visibility of my two books [1] Political Internet and [2] Intimate Speakers among core reading public in online space.
It will be really helpful if you are able to help me forward, share, tweet, post, or tag this message or parts of this message among potential beneficiaries of the ideas in the books in your network, your friend’s network or their networks?
Or anyone should according to you benefit if they work broadly on anything related to social media, Internet, society, politics, cyber sexuality, Internet pornography, intimacies,  women and online misogyny, introverts, underprivileged people, Diaspora, cyberspace, Internet in education, International relations, digital politics, social media and state, public sphere, civil society, social capital, contentious politics and so on.
1. Political Internet: State and Politics in the Age of Social Media, (Routledge 2017)
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2. Intimate Speakers: Why Introverted and Socially Ostracized Citizens Use Social Media, (Fingerprint! 2017).
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Biju P R
Author, Teacher, Blogger
Assistant Professor of Political Science
Government Brennen College
Kerala, India

My Books
1. Political Internet: State and Politics in the Age of Social Media,
(Routledge 2017), Amazon https://www.amazon.in/Political-InternetStatePoliticsSocialebook/dp/B01M5K3SCU?_encoding=UTF8&qid=&ref_=tmm_kin_swatch_0&sr=   

2. Intimate Speakers: Why Introverted and Socially Ostracized Citizens Use Social Media, (Fingerprint! 2017)
Amazon: http://www.amazon.in/dp/8175994290/ref=sr_1_2?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1487261127&sr=1-2&keywords=biju+p+r 

A society or a human society is (1) a group of people related to each other through persistent relations such as social status, roles and social networks. (2) A large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Human societies are characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals sharing a distinctive culture and institutions. Without an article, the term refers either to the entirety of humanity or a contextually specific subset of people.
Used in the sense of an association, a society is a body of individuals outlined by the bounds of functional interdependence, possibly comprising characteristics such as national or cultural identity, social solidarity, language or hierarchical organization.
Like other groupings, a society allows its members to achieve needs or wishes they could not fulfill alone; the social fact can be identified, understood or specified within a circumstance that certain resources, objectives, requirements or results, are needed and utilized in an individual manner and for individual ends, although they can't be achieved, gotten or fulfilled in an individual manner as well, but, on the contrary, they can be gotten only in a collective, collaborative manner; namely, team work becomes the valid functional means, to individual ends which an individual would need to have but isn't able to get.
More broadly, a society is an economic, social or industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied collection of individuals. Members of a society may be from different ethnic groups. A society may be a particular ethnic group, such as the Saxons; a nation state, such as Bhutan; a broader cultural group, such as a Western society. The word society may also refer to an organized voluntary association of people for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes. A "society" may even, though more by means of metaphor, refer to a social organism such as an ant colony or any cooperative aggregate such as for example in some formulations of artificial intelligence.
Conceptions of "society"
A half-section of the 12th century Song Dynasty version of Night Revels of Han Xizai, original by Gu Hongzhong; the painting, which is a masterpiece of the era's artwork, portrays servants, musicians, monks, children, guests, hosts all in a single social environment, serves as an in-depth look into 10th-century Chinese social structure.
Society, in general, addresses the fact that an individual has rather limited means as an autonomous unit. The Great apes have always been more (Bonobo.Homo, Pan) or less (Gorilla, Pongo) social animals so Robinson Crusoe like situations are either fictions or unusual corner cases to the ubiquity of social context for humans who fall between presocial and eusocial in the spectrum of animal ethology.
Human societies are most often organized according to their primary means of subsistence. Social scientists have identified hunter-gatherer societies, nomadic pastoral societies, horticulturalist or simple farming societies, and intensive agricultural societies, also called civilizations. Some consider industrial and post-industrial societies to be qualitatively different from traditional agricultural societies.
Today, anthropologists and many social scientists vigorously oppose the notion of cultural evolution and rigid "stages" such as these. In fact, much anthropological data has suggested that complexity (civilization, population growth and density, specialization, etc.) does not always take the form of hierarchical social organization or stratification.
Also, cultural relativism as a widespread approach/ethic has largely replaced notions of "primitive," better/worse, or "progress" in relation to cultures (including their material culture/technology and social organization).
According to anthropologist Maurice Godelier, one critical novelty in human society, in contrast to humanity's closest biological relatives (chimpanzees and bonobo), is the parental role assumed by the males, which supposedly would be absent in our nearest relatives for whom paternity is not in general determinable.
Political Science
Societies may also be organized according to their political structure. In order of increasing size and complexity, there are bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and state societies. These structures may have varying degrees of political power, depending on the cultural geographical, and historical environments that these societies must contend with. Thus, a more isolated society with the same level of technology and culture as other societies is more likely to survive than one in closer proximity to others that may encroach on their resources (see history for examples). A society that is unable to offer an effective response to other societies it competes with will usually be subsumed into the culture of the competing society (see technology for examples).
Sociologist Gerhard Lenski differentiates societies based on their level of technology, communication and economy: 1) hunters and gatherers, 2) simple agricultural, 3) advanced agricultural, 4) industrial, and 5) special (e.g. fishing societies or maritime societies).[3] This is somewhat similar to the system earlier developed by anthropologists Morton H. Fried, a conflict theorist, and Elman Service, an integration theorist, who have produced a system of classification for societies in all human cultures based on the evolution of social inequality and the role of the state. This system of classification contains four categories:
Hunter-gatherer bands (categorization on duties and responsibilities.)
Tribal societies in which there are some limited instances of social rank and prestige.
Stratified structures led by chieftains.
Civilizations, with complex social hierarchies and organized, institutional governments.
Culture and society
What is culture? And does culture ultimately fuel divisiveness as opposed to cohesiveness and unity, which is transmitted via a systematic structure—involving folklore, mores, values, customs, rituals, traditions, etc., and from this, society adopts learned behavior. Most sociologists simply define culture as being learned behavior. This means for the most part that predetermined genetic coding is being cast aside and our environment perhaps is being taunted and viewed as having the greatest influence on human development, as far as determining psychological and sociological orientation. Sociologist defines culture as, “consisting of all the shared products of human society. These products are of two basic kinds, material and non-material. Material culture consists of all the artifacts or physical objects, human beings create and give meaning to—wheels, clothing, schools, factories, cities, books, spacecraft, totem poles. Nonmaterial culture consists of more abstract creations—language, ideas, beliefs, rules, customs, myths, skills, family patterns, political systems. (Reference: Ian Robertson; “Sociology” pg. 53).
Does culture unconsciously and unintentionally create bias and we as human beings rely on and adopt predisposed attitudes and prejudices which have been passed on; this train of thought eventually affects, shapes and alters our worldview and ability to accept others unconditionally without referencing what we have learned about individuals, groups, society, cultures, etc? Our stored mental stimuli seems to always be the driving force relative to our ability to recall what we have been taught—good, bad or indifferent are forever guiding our assessment and evaluation of others. May be our social programming is the root cause of man’s inhumanity to man—our ability to commit all types of atrocities against humanity ranging from acts of genocide, ethnic cleansing, violence, institutionalize racism, hate crimes, and our capability to carryout all forms of oppression and repression against other human beings is rooted in this phenomenon; moreover, only because people may differ from us in racial and/or ethnic make up, having different religious beliefs, different sexual orientation and express life from a different cultural persuasion at times drives us to be intolerant. Also, in some instances intra-culture conflicts is the order of the day and we will be remissed to overlook this reality and it is no less genuine. (Reference: James Redfield; “The Celestine Prophecy”).
Biological and cultural basis of ociety and culture
The society at large is the product of human interaction.Most human interactions are decided by their predefined code of behavior.Every society has their own code of behavior.Unfortunately this code of behavior is decided by their biolological and cultural precincts.
For instance
The huge majority of social scientists regard race as a triviality, a social construction formulated in certain historical circumstances (like the era of European colonialism) when it was needed to help justify the unequal treatment of minority groups.
It is it also a social creation designed by men to rationalize their higher status? Or do the commonly observed gender differences (e.g., men are more aggressive, women more nurturing) have a biological basis stronger and more controlling than that supposedly associated with race? Are men and women different because of nature (differences in biology and genetic inheritance) or because of nurture (differences in expectations and experience for boys and girls during childhood socialization)?
Some people (including most sociologists) argue that gender roles are overwhelmingly learned and that the commonly observed gender differences in adults are the results of the fact that society puts boys and girls on different tracks of development from the moment of birth. Evidence for this point of view includes the malleable, open-ended nature of infants and the great range of behavioral and personality repertoires within each gender (e.g., some females are more aggressive than some males, and some males are more tender and nurturing than some females). Also, according to this view, the fact that “appropriate” behaviors for males and females vary from culture to culture and from time to time and are not fixed and permanent is taken as proof that there is no biological basis for gender roles.
On the other hand, some believe that the behavioral differences between males and females are “hardwired” in our genetic code just as surely and permanently as the differences in reproductive organs. Sociologist Steven Goldberg (1999), for example, argued that some gender characteristics are universal. He observed that males are more aggressive and that they control leadership positions and power structures in every society about which we have information. Goldberg believes that this is so because men are predisposed to pursue status and dominance over other pleasures and rewards of life—safety, wealth, leisure, and so forth—and that this tendency is the result of biology and genetic inheritance, not socialization or learning.
Caste is a social custom, and all our great preachers have tried to break it down. From Buddhism downwards, every sect has preached against caste, and every time it has only riveted the chains. Beginning from Buddha to Rammohan Ray, everyone made the mistake of holding caste to be a religious institution and tried to pull down religion and caste altogether, and failed.
In spite of all the ravings of the priests, caste is simply a crystallized social institution, which after doing its service is now filling the atmosphere of India with its stench, and it can only be removed by giving back to people their lost social individuality. Caste is simply the outgrowth of the political institutions of India; it is a hereditary trade guild. Trade competition with Europe has broken caste more than any teaching.
So the fact is that human behavior in the society is largely an offshoot of the biological and cultural premises.People have male and female differentiation in society based on gender differences which have become larger source of conflict.Race ,caste ,ethnicity etc have always been a factor of social interaction in all society.
Lecture notes prepared by Biju P R,Assistant Professor in Political Science

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